Tochmarc Etaine or
The Wooing of Etain
Yellow Book of Lecan
Translated by Osborn Bergin and Richard Irvine Best
I. Here Begins the Wooing of
1. There was a famous king of Ireland of the race of the
Tuatha De, Eochaid Ollathair his name. He was also named the Dagda [i.e. good
god], for it was he that used to work wonders for them and control the weather
and the crops. Wherefore men said he was called the Dagda. Elcmar of the Brug
had a wife whose name was Eithne and another name for her was Boand. The Dagda
desired her in carnal union. The woman would have yielded to the Dagda had it
not been for fear of Elcmar, so great was his power. Thereupon the Dagda sent
Elcmar away on a journey to Bres son of Elatha in Mag nInis, and the Dagda worked great
spells upon Elcmar as he set out, that he might not returns betimes (that is,
early) and he dispelled the darkness of night for him, and he kept hunger and
thirst from him. He sent him on long errands, so that nine months went by as one
day, for he had said that he would return home again between day and night.
Meanwhile the Dagda went in upon Elcmar's wife, and she bore him a son, even
Aengus, and the woman was whole of her sickness when Elcmar
returned, and he perceived not her offense, that is, that she had lain with the
2. The Dagda meanwhile brought his son to Midir's house in Bri Leith in
Tethba, to be fostered. There Aengus was reared for the space of nine years.
Midir had a great playing-field in Bri Leith. Thrice fifty
lads of the young nobles of Ireland were there and thrice fifty maidens of the
land of Ireland. Aengus was the leader of them all, because of Midir's great
love for him, and the beauty of his form and the nobility of his race. He was
also called in Mac Oc (the Young Son), for his mother said:
"Young is the son who was begotten at the break of day and born betwixt it and
3. Now Aengus quarreled with Triath son of Febal (or Gobor) of the Fir Bolg, who was one
of the two leaders in the game, and a fosterling of Midir. It was no matter of
pride with Aengus that Triath should speak to him, and he said: "It irks me that
the son of a serf should hold speech with me," for Aengus had believed until
then that Midir was his father, and the kingship of Bri Leith his
heritage, and he knew not of his kinship with the Dagda.
4. Triath made answer and said: "I take it no less ill that a hireling whose
mother and father are unknown should hold speech with me." Thereupon Aengus went
to Midir weeping and sorrowful at having been put to shame by Triath. "What is
this?" said Midir. "Triath has defamed me and cast in my face that I have
neither mother nor father." "Tis false," said Midir. "Who is my mother, from
whence is my father" "No hard matter. Thy father is Eochaid Ollathair," said
Midir, "and Eithne, wife of Elcmar of the Brug, is thy mother. It is I that have
reared thee unknown to Elcmar, lest it should cause him pain that thou wast
begotten in his despite." "Come thou with me," said Aengus, "that my father may
acknowledge me, and that I may no longer be kept hidden away under the insults
of the Fir Bolg."
5. Then Midir set out with his fosterling to have speech with Eochaid, and
they came to Uisnech of Meath in the center of Ireland, for 'tis there that was
Eochaid's house, Ireland stretching equally far from on every side, south and
north, to east and west. "Before them in the assembly they found Eochaid. Midir
called the king aside to have speech with the lad. "What does he desire, this
youth who has not come until now?" "His desire is to be acknowledged by his
father, and for land to be given to him," said Midir, "for it is not meet that
thy son should be landless while thou art king of Ireland." "He is welcome,"
said the Eochaid, "he is my son. But the land I wish him to have is not yet
vacant." "What land is that?" said Midir. "The Brug, to the north of the Boyne,"
said Eochaid. "Who is there?" said Midir. "Elcmar," said Eochaid, "is the man
who is there I have no wish to annoy him further."
6. "Pray, what counsel dost thou give this lad?" said Midir. "I have this for
him," said Eochaid. "On the day of Samain let him go into the Brug, and let him
go armed. That is a day of peace and amity among the men of Ireland, on which
none is at enmity with his fellow. And Elcmar will be in Cnoc Side in Borga
unarmed save for a fork of white hazel in his hand, his cloak folded around him
and a gold brooch in his cloak, and three fifties playing before him in the
playing-field; and let Aengus go to him and threaten to kill him. But it is meet
that he slay him not, provided he promise him his will. And let
this be the will of Aengus, that he be king for a day and a night in the Brug;
and see that thou not yield the land to Elcmar till he submit himself to my
decision; and when he comes let Aengus plea be that the land has fallen to him,
and that he in fee simple for sparing Elcmar and not slaying him, and that what
he had asked for is kingship of day and night, and" said he, "it is in days and
nights that the world is spent."
7. Then Midir sets out for his land, and his foster-son along with him, and
on the Samain following, Aengus having armed himself came into the Brug and made
a feint at Elcmar, so that he promised him in return for his life kingship of
day and night in his land. The Mac Oc straightway abode there that day and night
as king of the land, Elcmar's household being subject to him. On the morrow
Elcmar came to claim his land from the Mac Oc, and therewith threatened him
mightily. The Mac Oc said that he would not yield up his land until he should
put it to the decision of the Dagda in the presence of the men of Ireland.
8. Then they appeal to the Dagda, who adjudged each man's contract in
accordance with his undertaking. "So then this land accordingly belongs
henceforth to this youth," said Elcmar. "It is fitting," said the Dagda. "Thou
was taken unawares on a day of peace and amity. Thou gavest thy land for mercy
shown thee, for thy life was dearer to thee than thy land, yet thou shalt have
land from me that will be no less profitable to thee than the Brug." "Where is
that?" said Elcmar. "Cleitech," said the Dagda, "with the three lands that are
round about it, thy youths playing before thee every day in the Brug, and thou
shalt enjoy the fruits of the Boyne from this land." "It is well," said Elcmar;
"so shall it be accomplished." And he made a flitting to Cleitech, and built a
stronghold there, and Mac Oc abode in the Brug in his land.
9. Then Mider came on that day year to the Brug on a visit to his fosterling,
and he found the Mac Oc on the mound of Sid in Broga on the day of Samain, with
two companies of youth at play before him in the Brug, and Elcmar on the mound
of Cleitech to the south, watching them. A quarrel broke out among the youths in
the Brug. "Do not stir," said Midir to the Mac Oc, "because of
Elcmar, lest he come down to the plain. I will go myself to make peace between
them." Thereupon Midir went, and it was not easy for him to part them. A split
of holly was thrown at Midir as he was intervening, and it knocked one of his
eyes out. Midir came to the Mac Oc with his eye in his hand and said to him:
"Would that I had not come on a visit to thee, to be put to shame, for with this
blemish I cannot behold the land I have come to, and the land I have left, I
cannot return to it now.
10. "It shall in no wise be so," said the Mac Oc. "I shall go to
Dian Cecht that he may come and heal thee, and thine own
land shall be thine and this land shall be thine, and thine eye shall be whole
again without shame or blemish because of it." The Mac Oc went to Dian Cecht.
that thou mayest go with me," said he, "to save my foster-father who has been
hurt in the Burgh on the day of the Samain." Dian Cecht came and healed Midir,
so that he was whole again. "Good is my journeying now," said Midir, "since I am
healed." "It shall surely be so," said the Mac Oc. "Do thou abide here for a
year that thou mayest see my host and my folk, my household and my land."
11. I will not stay," said Midir, "unless I have a reward therefore." "What
reward?" said the Mac Oc. "Easy to say. A chariot worth seven cumals,"3 said
Midir, "and a mantle befitting me, and the fairest maiden in Ireland." "I have,"
said the Mac Oc, "the chariot, and the mantle befitting thee." "There is
moreover," said Midir, "the maiden that surpasses all the maidens in Ireland in
form." "Where is she?" said the Mac Oc. "She is in Ulster," said Midir,
"Ailill"s daughter Etain Echraide daughter of the king of the north-eastern part of
Ireland. She is the dearest and gentlest and loveliest in Ireland."
12. The Mac Oc went to seek her until he came to Ailill's house in Mag nInis.
He was made welcome, and he
abode three nights there. He told his mission and announced his name and race.
He said that it was in quest of Etain that he had come. "I will not give her to
thee," said Ailill, "for I can in no way profit by thee, because of the nobility
of thy family, and the greatness of thy power4 and
that of thy father. If thou put any shame on my daughter, no redress whatsoever
can be had of thee." "It shall not be so," said the Mac Oc. "I will buy her from
thee straightway." "Thou shall have that," said Ailill. "State thy demand," said
the Mac Oc. "No hard matter," said Ailill. "Thou shalt clear for me twelve
plains in my land that are under waste and wood, so that they may be at all
times for grazing cattle and for habitation to me, for games, assemblies,
gatherings, and strongholds."
13. "It shall be done," said the Mac Oc. He returns home and bewailed to the
Dagda the strait he was in. The latter caused twelve plains to be cleared in a
single night in Ailill's land. These are the names of the plains: Mag Macha, Mag
Lemna, Mag nItha, Mag Tochair, Mag nDula, Mag Techt, Mag Li, Mag Line, Mag
when that work had been accomplished by the Mac Oc he went to Ailill to demand
Etain. "Thou shalt not obtain her," said Ailill, "until thou draw out of this
land to the sea twelve great rivers that are in wells and bogs and moors, so
that they may bring produce from the sea to peoples and kindreds, and drain the
earth and the land."
14. He came again to the Dagda to bewail the strait he was in. Thereupon the
latter caused twelve great waters to course towards the sea in a single night.
They had not been seen there until then. These are the names of the waters: Find
and Modornn and Slena and Nas and Amnas and Oichen and Or and Banda and Samair
and Loche.6 Now
when these works were accomplished the Mac Oc came to have speech with Ailill in
order to claim Etain. "Thou shall not get her till thou purchase her, for after
thou hast taken her, I shall have no profit of the maiden beyond what I shall
obtain forthwith." "What dost thou require of me now?" said the Mac Oc. "I
require," said Ailill, "the maiden's weight in gold and silver, for that is my
portion of their price; all that thou has done up to now, the profit of it goes
to her folk and her kindred." "It shall be done," said the Mac Oc. She was
placed on the floor of Ailill's house, and her weight of gold and silver was
given for her. That wealth was left with Ailill, and the Mac Oc brought Etain
home with him.
15. Midir made that company welcome. That night Etain sleeps with Midir, and
on the morrow a mantle befitting him and a chariot were given to him, and he was
pleased with his foster- son. After that he abode a full year in the Brug with
Aengus. On that day year Midir went to his own land, to Bri Leith, and he
brought Etain with him. On that day he went from him the Mac Oc said to Midir,
"Give heed to the woman thou takest with thee, because of the dreadful cunning
woman that awaits thee, with all the knowledge and skill and craft that belongs
to her race," said Aengus, "also she has my word and my safeguard before the
Tuatha De Danann," that is, Fuamnach wife of Midir, of the progeny of Beothach son of
Iardanel. She was wise and prudent and skilled in the knowledge and magic power
of the Tuatha De Danann, for the wizard [druid]7 Bresal
had reared her until she was betrothed to Midir.
16. She made her husband welcome, that is Midir, and the woman spoke much
of...8 to them. "Come, O Midir," said Fuamnach, "that I may show
thee my house and thy meed of land...9 Midir
went round his land with Fuamnach, and she showed his seizin to him and...10 to
Etain. And after that the brought Etain again to Fuamnach. Fuamnach went before
them into the sleeping chamber where she slept, and she said to Etain: "The seat
of a good woman hast thou came into." When Etain sat down in the chair in the
middle of the house, Fuamnach struck her with a rod of scarlet quickentree, and
she turned into a pool of water in the middle of the house; and Fuamach comes to
her foster-father Bresal, and Midir left the house to the water
into which Etain had turned. After that Midir was without a wife.
17. The heat of the fire and the air and the seething of the ground aided the
water so that the pool that was in the middle of the house turned into a worm,
and after that the worm became a purple fly. It was as big as a man's head, the
comeliest in the land. Sweeter than pipes and harps and horns was the sound of
her voice and the hum of her wings. Her eyes would shine like precious stones in
the dark. The fragrance and the bloom of her would turn away hunger and thirst
from any one around whom she would go. The spray of the drops she
shed from her wings would cure all sickness and disease and plague in any one
round whom she go. She used to attend Midir and go round about his land with
him, as he went. To listen to her and gaze upon her would nourish hosts in
gatherings and assemblies in camps. Midir knew that it was Etain that was in
that shape, and so long as that fly was attended upon him, he never took to
himself a wife, and the sight of her would nourish him. He would fall asleep
with her humming, and whenever any one approached who did not love him, she
would awaken him.
18. After a time Fuamnach came on a visit to Midir, and along with her as
sureties came the three gods of Dana, namely Lug and the Dagda, and Ogma.
Midir reproached Fuamnach exceedingly and said to her
that she should not go from him were it not for the power of the sureties that
had brought her. Fuamnach said that she did not repent of the deed she had done,
for that she would rather do good for herself than to another, and that in
whatsoever part of Ireland she might be she would do naught but harm to Etain so
long as she lived, and in whatsoever shape she might be. She brought powerful
incantations and... spells from Bresal Etarlam the wizard to banish and warn off
Etain from Midir, for she knew that the purple fly that was delighting Midir was
Etain herself, for wherever he saw the scarlet fly, Midir loved no other woman,
and he found no pleasure in music or in drinking or eating when he did not see
her and hear the music of her and her voice. Fuamnach stirred up a wind of
assault and magic so that Etain was wafted from Bri Leith, and for seven
years she could not find a summit or a tree or a hill or a height in Ireland on
which she could settle, but only rocks of the sea and the ocean waves, and (she
was) floating through the air until seven years from that day when she lighted
on the fringe on the breast of the Mac Oc as he was on the mound of the
19. There it was that the Mac Oc said "Welcome, Etain,"wanderer careworn,
thou that hast encountered great dangers through the cunning of Fuamnach..
11 [ni fuair fos na subae do thaebu tairisi fri Midir muindteras me fein fomruair
gnimach co sluagaib sochaidhi slige dithrebe diupa na domma imorchrad n-
indbaissa Aileila ingini is digbal dimuin conid do dibel truag domaining iat
tain fo chean f.o.c.e.n.]12
20. The Mac Oc made the girl welcome, that is, the purple fly, and gathered
her in his bosom in the fleece of his cloak. He brought her to his house13 and
his sun-bower with its bright windows for passing out and in, and purple raiment
was put on her; and wherever he went that sun-bower was carried by
the Mac Oc, and there he used to sleep every night by her side, comforting her,
until her gladness and colour came to her again. And that sun-bower was filled
with fragrant and wondrous herbs, and she throve on the fragrance and bloom of
those goodly precious herbs.
21. Fuamnach was told of the love and honour that was bestowed by the Mac Oc
on Etain. Said Fuamnach to Midir, "Let thy fosterling be summoned that I may
make peace between you both, while I myself go in guest of Etain." A messenger
comes to the Mac Oc from Midir, and he went to speak to him. Meanwhile Fuamnach
came by a circuitous way until she was in the Brug, and she sent the same blast
on Etain, which carried her out of her sun-bower on the very flight she had
been on before for the space of seven years throughout Ireland. The blast of
wind drove her along in misery and weakness until she alit on the rooftree of a
house in Ulster where folk were drinking, and she fell into the golden beaker
that was before the wife of Etar, the champion from Inber Cichmaine, in the province of
Conchobar, so that she swallowed her with the liquid that was in the beaker, and
in this wise she was conceived in her womb and became afterwards her daughter.
She was called Etain daughter of Etar. Now it was a thousand
and twelve years from the first begetting of Etain by Ailill until her last
begetting by Etar.
22. After that Etain was brought up at Inber Cichmaine by Etar, and fifty
daughters of chieftains along with her, and he it was that fed and clothed them
to be in attendance on Etain always. day it befell that all the maidens were
bathing in the estuary when they saw from the water a horseman entering the
plain towards them. He was mounted on a broad brown steed, curvetting and
prancing, with curly mane and curly tail. Around him a green mantle in folds,
and a red-embroidered tunic, and in his mantle a golden brooch which reached to
his shoulder on either side. A silvern shield with rim of gold slung over his
back, and a silver strap to it and boss of gold theron. In his hand a five
pronged spear in bands of gold round about it from haft to socket. Bright yellow
hair he had reaching to his forehead. A fillet of gold against his forehead so
that his hair would not fall over his face. He halted a while on
the bank gazing at the maiden, and all the maidens loved him. Thereupon he
uttered this lay:
This is Etain here to-day
The warrior departed from them after that and they knew not whence he had
come or whither he had gone.
at Sid Ban Find west of Ailbe,
among little boys is she
on the brink of Inber Cichmaine.
She it is who healed the King's eye
from the well of Loch Da Lig:
she it is that was swallowed in a drink
from a beaker by Etar's wife.
Because of her the King shall chase
the birds from Tethba,
and drown his two steeds
in the pool of Loch Da Airbrech.
Full many a war shall be
on Eochaid of Meath because of thee:
there shall be destruction of elfmounds,
and battle against many thousands.
'Tis she that was sung of (?) in the land;
'tis she that strives to win the King;
'tis she...14 Be Find,
She is our Etain afterwards.
24. When the Mac Oc came to confer with Midir, he did not find Fuamnach
there, and he (Midir) said to him: "The woman has played us false, and15 if
she be told that Etain is in Ireland and she will go to do her ill." ["Methinks
'tis likely so," said the Mac Oc.]16
"Etain has been at my house in the Brug since a little while in the shape in
which she was wafted from thee, and perhaps it is she that the woman is
25. The Mac Oc returns home and finds the crystal sun-bower without Etain in
it. The Mac Oc turns upon Fuamnach's traces and came up on her at Aenech Bodbgna
at the house of Bresal Eterlam. The Mac Oc attacked her and shore off her head,
and he brought that head with him until he was on the brink of the Brug.
26. Howbeit, this is the version elsewhere, that they were both slain by
Manannan, namely Fuamnach and Midir, in Bri Leith, whereof was said:
Fuamnach the foolish one was Midir's wife,
Sigmall, a hill with ancient trees,
in Bri Leith 'twas a faultless arrangement,
they were burned by Manannan.
1. Osborn Bergin and Richard Irvine Best, "Tochmarc Etaine," Eriu 12 (1937), p. 143-93.
2. Something seems to be omitted here. As
Aengus is addressing Dian Cecht, it seems likely that a visit to Dian Cecht's
abode is implied.
3. Cumal: according to Jeffrey Gantz, Early Irish Myths and Sagas,
note, p. 269: "a female slave, worth three milch cows or six hefers."
4. 'Power' here means, perhaps as often, 'magic power'
5. Nine only are named.
6. Ten only are named.
7. The Irish text identifies Brasal as Bresal drui, a druid.
8. The first of several obscure readings, or possible ommission in this
9. Read perhaps, conda accathar...dom aithis 'so
that the kings daughter may see them as a reproach to me' (or do maithis 'thy
wealth'); but the passage is obscure.
10. Something apparently omitted here.
11. rhetoric, untranslated.
12. Gantz, Early Irish, p. 46: "Not yet have you found, your side
secure in alliance with Mider. As for me, he has found me capable of actions
with hosts, the slaughter of a multitude, the clearing of wildernesses, the
world's aboundance for Ailill's daughter. An idle task, for your wretched ruin
13. It is at this point that the "Book of Dun Cow"
(LU) version begins.
14. Text corrupt here.
15. Something apparently dropped here in both
MSS. This entire paragraph is very fragmentary.
16. Reconstructed this line from the "Book of Dun Cow."